MedLine Search: Lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide from the Shitake mushroom
Legacy MedLine Search
The Shitake mushroom is a common culinary mushroom used in Chinese, and Japanese cooking. In the US, Shitake is available fresh or dried in oriental markets, health food markets, and even many supermarkets. In Japan, Lentinan, an extract of this mushroom, has been used against colorectal and stomach cancer, often in conjunction with other treatment such as chemotherapy, and Japanese researchers have presented data supporting this use. Like most of the other polysaccharide drugs, Lentinan appears to be an immunostimulant. Almost all of the Japanese studies use injected Lentinan, so it is very unclear whether eating Shitake mushrooms could have a beneficial effect aside from the considerable culinary virtues.
This MedLine Search of the technical medical literature is from the early days of CancerGuide so it may not include the latest research. The articles referenced are still relevant but more recent ones may also be available. For more information on the incredibly powerful and freely available MedLine database see my Article on MedLine.
In all cases I have selected the references that looked most interesting to me. These are searches with a point of view! There could be references on this same subject that I didn’t include that you would have. For both of these reasons as well as the age of the search, you may want to consider doing your own search on this subject after looking at mine.
Finally, keep in mind that the abstracts presented here are only summaries of the actual articles. If you want to delve deeper you may want to get some of these articles from a Medical Library or an online document delivery service, as is provided with all MedLine accesses (usually for a fairly substantial fee).
FRI FEB 23,1996 10:16 PM PaperChase provides 9,075,068 references -- all references found in the following databases of the National Library of Medicine and the National Cancer Institute*. You are searching all four databases simultaneously. Database Indexing Began Updated Current through MEDLINE 1966 weekly April 1996 Update, Part 2 HEALTH 1975 monthly December 1995 Update AIDSLINE 1980 monthly December 1995 Update *CANCERLIT 1980 monthly February 1996 Update LIST REFERENCES LIST REFERENCES A) LENTINAN 290 C) *ON A&B; 168 B) NEOPLASMS 1162093 *****CANCER RESEARCH***** (REFERENCE 1 OF 21) 71057757 Chihara G Hamuro J Maeda Y Arai Y Fukuoka F Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked antitumor activity, especially lentinan, from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an edible mushroom). In: Cancer Res (1970 Nov) 30(11):2776-81 [No Abstract Available] *****CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN***** (REFERENCE 2 OF 21) 88027328 Nanba H Mori K Toyomasu T Kuroda H Antitumor action of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fruit bodies orally administered to mice. In: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) (1987 Jun) 35(6):2453-8 [No Abstract Available] *****BIOTHERAPY***** (REFERENCE 3 OF 21) 92399132 Oka M Yoshino S Hazama S Shimoda K Suzuki T Immunological analysis and clinical effects of intraabdominal and intrapleural injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural effusion. In: Biotherapy (1992) 5(2):107-12 Twenty effusions in sixteen patients with malignant peritoneal and/or pleural effusions were treated with intracavitary injection of lentinan. Lentinan was injected at a dosage of 4 mg/week for 4 weeks. In total, sixteen (80%) of twenty lesions demonstrated clinical responses. Performance status was improved in seven patients. The average survival time in responders was 129 days, while, in non- responders, it was 49 days. Serious toxicities were not observed. NK activity of PBMC significantly decreased after lentinan injection. NK activity of PEC in responders was augmented significantly. Anti-Daudi and lymphokine activated killer activity were also augmented or maintained after lentinan injection. Institutional address: Second Department of Surgery Yamaguchi University School of Medicine Japan. *****CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY***** (REFERENCE 4 OF 21) 94185237 Suto T Fukuda S Moriya N Watanabe Y Sasaki D Yoshida Y Sakata Y Clinical study of biological response modifiers as maintenance therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol (1994) 33 Suppl:S145-8 We conducted a randomized, controlled trial comparing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with or without biological response modifiers (BRMs) as a maintenance therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) or arterial infusion of antitumor agents (AI). A total of 58 cases of HCC were classified into 4 groups as follows: group I, PSK with 5-FU (n = 15); group II, lentinan with 5- FU (n = 15); group III, OK-432 with 5-FU (n = 12); and group IV, 5-FU alone as the control (n = 16). The mean survival time, mortality rate, time to progression, and T4/T8 ratio of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were compared among the four groups. There was no significant difference in the background factors among the groups. In group I, the T4/T8 ratio of lymphocytes was reduced after the therapy. No significant difference was found among the groups in terms of the mean survival time, mortality rate, or time to progression. PEI for initial therapy was superior to the other therapies in terms of the mean survival time and mortality rate. These results suggest that the addition of BRM to maintenance therapy with 5-FU exerts no prognostic benefit on HCC patients treated with PEI, TAE, or AI. Institutional address: First Department of Internal Medicine Hirosaki University School of Medicine Japan. *****CANCER DETECTION AND PREVENTION. SUPPLEMENT***** (REFERENCE 5 OF 21) 88080256 Chihara G Hamuro J Maeda YY Shiio T Suga T Takasuka N Sasaki T Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinan as an immunomodulator: an overview. In: Cancer Detect Prev Suppl (1987) 1:423-43 The antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities, mode of action, and clinical application of lentinan, a strictly purified beta- 1,6:beta-1,3-glucan, are reviewed. Lentinan exerts a prominent antitumor effect and prevents chemical and viral oncogenesis. The antitumor action of lentinan is host-mediated. Compared to other well- known immunostimulants, such as bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lentinan appears to represent a unique class of immunopotentiator, a T cell- oriented adjuvant. Lentinan triggers the increased production of various kinds of bioactive serum factors associated with immunity and inflammation, such as IL-1, CSF, IL-3, vascular dilation inducer, and acute-phase protein inducer, by the direct impact of macrophages or indirectly via lentinan-stimulated T cells, which results in the induction of many immunobiological changes in the host. Augmented IL- 1 production amplifies the maturation of immature effector cells to mature cells capable of responding to lymphokines such as IL-2 and T cell-replacing factors. Because of this mode of action, intact T cell compartments for antitumor activity of lentinan are required. Lentinan has little toxic side effects. Excellent results were obtained in a 4 year follow-up of the randomized control study of lentinan in phase III on patients with advanced and recurrent stomach and colorectal cancer. Institutional address: National Cancer Center Research Institute Tokyo Japan. (REFERENCE 6 OF 21) 88080247 Taguchi T Clinical efficacy of lentinan on patients with stomach cancer: end point results of a four-year follow-up survey. In: Cancer Detect Prev Suppl (1987) 1:333-49 End-point results of a 4-yr followup survey and a randomized control trial of lentinan (LNT) on patients with advanced or recurrent stomach cancer have been investigated in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LNT in combination with chemotherapeutic agent tegafur (FT). Eligible (68) patients in control groups were administered with FT consecutively at doses of 600 mg/day, and eligible (96) patients in the treated group were administered LNT in combination with FT. LNT was injected intravenously 2 mg weekly. Remarkable lifespan prolongation effects of LNT have been observed both at the end of the control trial and at the end of the followup survey (p less than 0.01) using Kaplan-Meier's method and the generalized Wilcoxian test. Remarkable survival at 1, 2 and 3 years has been observed in the treated group using lifetable analysis. Side effects of LNT have been transitional and not serious. Thus, LNT should be effective in combination with FT for patients with stomach cancer. Institutional address: Department of Oncologic Surgery Osaka University Japan. *****CANCER IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOTHERAPY***** (REFERENCE 7 OF 21) 93145302 Ladanyi A Timar J Lapis K Effect of lentinan on macrophage cytotoxicity against metastatic tumor cells. In: Cancer Immunol Immunother (1993) 36(2):123-6 We studied the effect of lentinan, a fungal polysaccharide immunomodulator, on mouse peritoneal macrophages. The i.p. treatment of mice with 10 mg/kg lentinan affected the number, plastic- adherence, and endogen peroxidase activity of peritoneal cells. The cytotoxicity of lentinan-stimulated peritoneal macrophages was determined against several murine and human metastatic tumor targets: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLT) and two human melanomas, and was found to be significantly higher than that of the macrophages from control animals. However, the highly metastatic variant of LLT (LLT-HH) was resistant to the cytolytic effect of resident and lentinan-activated macrophages as well, indicating that the stimulation for cytotoxicity depends not only on the functional activity of the effector but also on the sensitivity of the target. Institutional address: 1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research Semmelweis Medical University Budapest Hungary. *****DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION***** (REFERENCE 8 OF 21) 93050820 Chihara G Recent progress in immunopharmacology and therapeutic effects of polysaccharides. In: Dev Biol Stand (1992) 77:191-7 Lentinan, a (1----3)-beta-D-glucan with (1----6)-beta-D- glucopyranoside branches and its related polysaccharides have marked antitumour activity in allogeneic, syngeneic and autochthonous primary hosts, suppress chemical and viral oncogenesis, and prevent cancer recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Results of the clinical application of lentinan have proven prolongation of life- span of the patients with advanced and recurrent stomach, colorectal and breast cancer with only little toxic side effect. These polysaccharides also increase host resistance to various kinds of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections including AIDS. Lentinan appears to represent Host Defence Potentiators (HDPs), which can restore or augment the ability of responsiveness of the host to lympho-cytokines or other intrinsic bioactive factors through maturation, differentiation or proliferation of the important cells for host defence mechanisms. That is, HDPs might make the physiological constitution highly cancer and infection-resistant, which may be a concept in Oriental Medicine, the fundamental principle of which is to regulate homeostasis of the whole body and to bring the diseased person to his normal state. HDPs such as lentinan are the most appropriate drugs to prevent cancer recurrence, or the manifestation of AIDS symptoms in HIV carriers. Institutional address: Biotechnology Research Center Teikyo University Kawasaki Japan. *****GAN TO KAGAKU RYOHO [JAPANESE JOURNAL OF CANCER AND CHEMOTHERAPY]***** (REFERENCE 9 OF 21) 92255360 Mashiko H Satoh J Hatayama H Kitamura H [A case of advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis completely responding to a combined immunochemotherapy with UFT, mitomycin C and lentinan] In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1992 May) 19(5):715-8 (Published in Japanese) A 74-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer of Borrmann type III and liver metastasis was treated by combined administration of UFT (400 mg/day, p. o.), Mitomycin C (14 mg/body/4w., i.v.) and Lentinan (2 mg/w., i.v.). Five and half months after the therapy, endoscopic examination and ultrasonography showed the primary and liver- metastatic lesions had completely disappeared. Ten months after the therapy, total gastrectomy and intraoperative liver wedge biopsy were performed and complete disappearance of cancer cells was histologically confirmed. The total dose of UFT, MMC and LNT administered until the operation was 76.4 g, 42 mg and 74 mg, respectively. However, the patient eventually died of the recurrence of liver metastases three years after the initial immunochemotherapy. Institutional address: Dept. of Surgery Kurikoma Kokuho Hospital Miyagi Japan. (REFERENCE 10 OF 21) 83281658 Taguchi T [Effects of lentinan in advanced or recurrent cases of gastric, colorectal, and breast cancer] In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1983 Feb) 10(2 Pt 2):387-93 (Published in Japanese) In order to evaluate clinical efficacy of Lentinan (LNT), a purified polysaccharide extracted from Lentinus edodes, randomized controlled studies with envelope method have been conducted on the patients with advanced or recurrent, stomach, colo-rectal and breast cancer. Administration condition of LNT for gastrointestinal cancer was designed as the following: LNT was administered intravenously at doses of 1 mg/person/day twice a week or 2 mg/person/day once a week in combination with mitomycine C + 5-FU (MF) or tegafur (FT). Control therapy was the administration of MF or FT alone. Survival curve drawn by Kaplan-Meier's method showed that life span prolongation effect of LNT was observed with statistical significance (P less than 0.05 or P less than 0.01) by use of generalized Wilcoxon's test. Moreover, improvement of host immune responses was observed in LNT treated group, and hematological survey showed that incidence rate of abnormal value was significantly low in LNT treated group. Thus, LNT should be effective for the patients with advanced or recurrent stomach or colo-rectal cancer in combination with chemotherapeutic agents such as MF or FT. Regarding advanced or recurrent breast cancer, study is underway. LNT has been administered as an agent for supportive therapy to the patients with complete response, partial response or stable diseases which were induced by prior surgery of oophorectomy. Again, life span prolongation effect of LNT has been observed with statistical significance (P less than 0.05). This result suggests that LNT would also be effective for the patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer as an agent for supportive therapy. Institutional address: Research Institute for Microbial Diseases Osaka University. (REFERENCE 11 OF 21) 96006462 Hazama S Oka M Yoshino S Iizuka N Wadamori K Yamamoto K Hirazawa K Wang F Ogura Y Masaki Y et al [Clinical effects and immunological analysis of intraabdominal and intrapleural injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural effusion of gastric carcinoma] In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1995 Sep) 22(11):1595-7 (Published in Japanese) Twenty-one patients with malignant peritoneal or pleural effusions of gastric carcinomas were treated with intracavitary injection of lentinan (LNT). LNT was injected at a dosage of 4 mg/week for 4 weeks. In total, fifteen (71%) of twenty-one patients demonstrated clinical responses. Toxicity caused a high fever in only one case. LAK and ATK activities induced from peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) after culture with autologous tumor and interleukin-2 were examined before and after LNT injection. ATK activity was augmented, but LAK activity was reduced after LNT injection. These results indicate that intracavitary injection of LNT is a useful treatment for malignant effusions, and that LNT augments the induction of cytotoxic T- lymphocytes. Institutional address: Dept. of Surgery II Yamaguchi University School of Medicine. (REFERENCE 12 OF 21) 87297576 Wada T Nishide T Hatayama K Chang SW Tatsuta M Yasutomi M [A comparative clinical trial with tegafur plus lentinan treatment at two different doses in advanced cancer] In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1987 Aug) 14(8):2509-12 (Published in Japanese) In order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of combined tegafur plus lentinan treatment, a comparative trial was performed on patients with advanced cancer using two different doses, a conventional-dose group and a high-dose group. Thirty-four patients were evaluable in this trial. The doses of medication were 600 mg of tegafur p.o. daily and 1-2 mg of lentinan i.v. weekly in the conventional-dose group, and 1,200-800 mg of tegafur p.o. daily and 4 mg of lentinan i.v. weekly in the high-dose group. The response was evaluated using the criteria of Koyama. The response rates were 14.3% for the conventional-dose group and 25.0% for the high-dose group, although no statistical difference was observed Acute toxicities such as oppression in the anterior chest and dryness of the throat, which were considered to be probably due to lentinan, were noted in patients given rapid administration with 20 ml of solution. However, these effects disappeared with slow-drip infusion using 100-200 ml of solution. These results suggest that the combined tegafur plus lentinan treatment would be better administered at a dose higher than the conventional one for the treatment for advanced cancers. Institutional address: 1st Dept. of Surgery Kinki University School of Medicine. (REFERENCE 13 OF 21) 86185567 Wakui A Kasai M Konno K Abe R Kanamaru R Takahashi K Nakai Y Yoshida Y Koie H Masuda H et al [Randomized study of lentinan on patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. Tohoku Lentinan Study Group] In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1986 Apr) 13(4 Pt 1):1050-9 (Published in Japanese) A randomized study of mitomycin C (MMC)+5-FU [control group] vs MMC+5- FU+lentinan (LNT) [LNT group] was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of LNT against advanced gastric and colorectal cancers by the envelope method in 166 patients, comprising of 115 cases of gastric cancer and 51 cases of colorectal cancer. Significant increases were observed in the survival rates for the LNT group (p less than 0.05) for both patients with gastric and colorectal cancer. No significant difference was observed in response rates between the aforesaid two groups, though the response rate in the LNT group was slightly higher than the control group. These results suggest that LNT in combination with anticancer drugs prolong the survival time of patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. Institutional address: Dept. of Clinical Cancer Chemotherapy Tohoku University. (REFERENCE 14 OF 21) 85120968 Taguchi T Furue H Kimura T Kondo T Hattori T Itoh I Ogawa N [Results of phase III study of lentinan] In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1985 Feb) 12(2):366-78 (Published in Japanese) A follow-up survey of survivals (Oct. 1 '80 to May 1, '84) in a randomized controlled study (Aug. '79 to Sept. 30' 80) of lentinan in combination administration with chemotherapeutic agents such as 5FU + mitomycin C or tegafur on patients with advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer has shown that lentinan has been effective in such cases with regard to the following facts: 1) A life span prolongation effect at the end-point has been observed with statistical significance in lentinan treated patients as was found in the phase III study. 2) Using the life table analysis method, a higher rate of survival has been observed in the lentinan treated group, especially in combination with tegafur for gastric cancer, clearly showing such high survival rates as 12.97% (P less than 0.05) at two years after, and 9.51% (P less than 0.05) and 3.81%, at three and four years after respectively, and for colorectal cancer, 9.10% and 4.55% at two years and three years after, respectively. Institutional address: Osaka University. *****GANN***** (REFERENCE 15 OF 21) 77004110 Sasaki T Takasuka N Chihara G Maeda YY Antitumor activity of degraded products of lentinan: its correlation with molecular weight. In: Gann (1976 Apr) 67(2):191-5 Lentinan, an antitumor polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes, was degraded to seven fractions by treatment with formic acid. The low molecular-weight fractions (I and II) showed no antitumor activity against sarcoma-180 solid-type tumor and the absorption maximum of Congo Red did not shift in their presence in 0.1M sodium hydroxide. The medium molecular-weight fraction III, which required the increase of doses (5 or 10 mg/kg) for inhibition of tumor growth, caused a little shift. On the other hand, the absorption maximum of Congo Red shifted largely by the presence of high moecular-weight fractions (IV approximately VII) which showed the inhibition ratio of over 95% in a dose of 1 mg/kg. Participation of molecular weight in the antitumor activity of polysaccharides which contain (1 leads to 3)- beta-D-glucan main chain was discussed. *****HINYOKIKA KIYO. ACTA UROLOGICA JAPONICA***** (REFERENCE 16 OF 21) 94175035 Tari K Satake I Nakagomi K Ozawa K Oowada F Higashi Y Negishi T Yamada T Saito H Yoshida K [Effect of lentinan for advanced prostate carcinoma] In: Hinyokika Kiyo (1994 Feb) 40(2):119-23 (Published in Japanese) A prospective, randomized multi-center study was conducted to assess the clinical effectiveness of Lentinan, an immunomodulatory agent, in the metastatic prostate cancer. Of seventy-five patients enrolled from July 1987 to June 1992, 69 were eligible. All patients received hormonal therapy and chemotherapy using Tegafur p.o. at a dose of 400- 800 mg/day. While 33 patients received Lentinan i.m. for at least three months, the other 36 did not. The dose of Lentinan was 2 mg weekly for inpatients and 4 mg every other week for outpatients. The mean age of treated and control patients was 70 (range; 53-83) and 71 (range; 50-86), respectively. The 50% survival length of treated and control patients was 48 and 35 months, respectively. The five-year survival rate of treated patients was 43% according to the Kaplan- Meier method, while that of control patients was 29% (p < 0.05). We conclude that Lentinan is effective in metastatic prostate cancer when incorporated into hormonochemotherapy. Institutional address: Department of Urology Saitama Cancer Center. *****INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY***** (REFERENCE 17 OF 21) 92394698 Arinaga S Karimine N Takamuku K Nanbara S Inoue H Nagamatsu M Ueo H Akiyoshi T Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer activity after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. In: Int J Immunopharmacol (1992 May) 14(4):535-9 In 15 patients with gastric carcinoma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) were obtained serially before and 3, 5 and 7 days after lentinan administration. The generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity, induced by in vitro activation of PBM with interleukin 2 (IL 2), was significantly augmented 5 days after a single intravenous dose of 2 mg lentinan, when compared with that before lentinan injection. Natural killer (NK) activity of PBM was also significantly enhanced 7 days after the drug injection. However, the distribution of lymphocyte subsets exhibited no significant change following lentinan administration. Institutional address: Department of Surgery Kyushu University Beppu Japan. *****INT J IMMUNOTHERAPY***** (REFERENCE 18 OF 21) 94696848 Ochiai T Isono K Suzuki T Koide Y Gunji Y Nagata M Ogawa N Effect of immunotherapy with lentinan on patients' survival and immunological parameters in patients with advanced gastric cancer: results of a multicenter randomized controlled study (Meeting abstract). In: Int J Immunotherapy (1992) 8(3):161-9 1992 The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapy with lentinan was assessed in a study involving 89 patients with inoperable or recurrent gastric cancer from February 1987 to May 1989. Registered patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: the chemotherapy group (MMC plus tegafur or UFT), or the immunochemotherapy group (chemotherapy plus lentinan). Among the 64 completely evaluable patients, a statistically significant difference in the survival curve was observed between the two treatment groups. Immunochemotherapy with lentinan prolonged the life-span when compared with chemotherapy alone. Regarding the immunological effects of these regimens, a decrease in NK activity and an increase in the number of CD8(+)CD11b(+) cells (suppressor T cells) and CD4(+)CD45RA(+) cells (suppressor-inducer T cells) were found in the chemotherapy group. However, NK activity was maintained and an increase in the number of CD4(+)CD45RA(-) cells (helper T cells) and CD8(+)CD11 b(-)cells (cytotoxic T cells) was found in the immunochemotherapy group. Serious side effects associated with lentinan were not observed throughout the study. These results emphasize the effectiveness of lentinan as an immunotherapeutic agent in advanced gastric cancer. Institutional address: Second Department of Surgery School of Medicine Chiba University 1-8-1 Inohana Chiba 280 Japan *****NIPPON GAN CHIRYO GAKKAI SHI. JOURNAL OF JAPAN SOCIETY FOR CANCER***** (REFERENCE 19 OF 21) 91037479 Tanabe H Imai N Takechi K [Studies on usefulness of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with lentinan in patients with gastrointestinal cancer] In: Nippon Gan Chiryo Gakkai Shi (1990 Aug 20) 25(8):1657-67 (Published in Japanese) The usefulness of Lentinan, as an agent for postoperative adjuvant therapy, was investigated in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Sixty-one patients were classified into three stages by a degree of advance for cancer (Stage II, III, IV). Furthermore, each group was put into the control group (C group) and the Lentinan group (L group), received 600 mg/day of Tegafur p. o. only or 600 mg/day of Tegafur p. o. and 2 mg/week of Lentinan i. v., respectively. Then total lymphocyte counts and NK cell activities were measured and analysis of lymphocyte subsets by two color flow cytometry was carried out every two months. The results were as follows: 1) Some parameters were preserved in higher levels in the L group especially in the stage IV. 2) In the stage IV, total lymphocyte counts of the L group were preserved higher levels compared to those of the C group. The same tendency was observed in OKT3, OKT4 and OKT8 positive cell counts. 3) In the stage IV, both OKT8+ x Leu15+ cell (suppressor T cell) and OKT8+ x Leu15- cell (killer T cell) counts tended to decrease in the C group. 4) In the stage IV, the NK cell activities of the L group were preserved in higher level compared to those of the C group. Leu7+ x Leu11-, Leu7+ x Leu11+ and Leu11- x Leu11+ cells counts tended to preserve in the L group. From these results, it was suggested that Lentinan had a marked immunopotentiating efficacy in the stage IV among gastrointestinal cancer patients. Institutional address: Department of Surgery Kizawa Hospital. *****NIPPON GEKA GAKKAI ZASSHI. JOURNAL OF JAPAN SURGICAL SOCIETY***** (REFERENCE 20 OF 21) 84219257 Okuyama K Isono K Satoh H Onoda S Tohnosu N Yamamoto Y Ryu M Koide Y Kimura M Hanaoka A et al [Basic and clinical studies on metastatic cancer--with special reference of multidisciplinary treatment of gastric and colorectal cancer patients with hepatic metastasis] In: Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi (1983 Sep) 84(9):796-9 (Published in Japanese) We studied 161 gastric cancer patients with P0, H(+) and 51 colorectal cancer patients with P0, H(+) from among cancer patients of the digestive organs and obtained the following conclusions. The effective treatment for synchronous hepatic metastasis was regarded as the group with surgical removal of the primary lesion plus hepatic resection plus chemotherapy, demonstrating most favorable prognosis in both gastric and colorectal cancer patients. Prognosis of the group treated with surgical removal of the primary lesion plus hepatic resection plus chemotherapy, was the most excellent and was followed by the group with surgical removal of the primary lesion plus chemotherapy and group with surgical removal of the primary lesions and group surgical removal of the primary lesion in this order. Concerning chemotherapy after surgical removal of the primary lesion, continuous intraarterial infusion therapy with FML regimen combining Lentinan revealed more favorable prognosis also in both gastric and colorectal cancer patients. Hepatic resection with aggressive reduction surgery was of significance in the treatment for the patients with hepatic metastasis of H1 and H2. Long-term survival is also expected for the patients with metachronous hepatic metastasis of H1 by hepatic resection plus chemotherapy. Institutional address: Second Department of Surgery School of Medicine Chiba University Japan. ********** (REFERENCE 21 OF 21) 85615297 Taguchi T LENTINAN: BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND CLINICAL TRIAL In: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Treatment of Tumor Metastasis. Torisu M, Yoshida T, eds. Orlando, Florida, Academic Press, 1985. (1985):549-58 Characteristics, spectrum of antitumor activity in animal models, and immunological and physiological activities of lentinan are reviewed; also, results of Phase I, II, and III clinical trials are described. Phase I studies suggested that doses should be limited to 0.5-5.0 mg/person/day; side effects noted in 50 patients (pts) included liver dysfunction, a feeling of heaviness in the chest, and petechiae on the legs (one case of each). In phase II trials (126 pts with gastric, colorectal, breast, liver, and other types of cancer), results of analyses of antitumor effects, PPD skin tests, and peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) counts indicated that lentinan should be administered once or twice a wk at doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/person/day in combination with chemotherapy. In the Phase III trial, lentinan was administered iv at 1 mg/person/day twice weekly or 2 mg/person/day once a wk in combination with chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil + mitomycin C (MF) or 5-fluorouracil + Tegafur (FT). In the MF treatment the mitomycin C was given iv at 4 mg/day twice a wk for the first 2 wk, followed by the same dose once a wk. In the FT treatment the Tegafur was administered at 400-1,200 mg/day po, iv, or in a suppository. Sixty cases of gastric cancer were eligible for MF, 76 for MF + lentinan, 72 for FT, and 77 for FT + lentinan. Seventeen cases of colorectal cancer were eligible for FT, and 23 cases for FT + lentinan. Better antitumor results were seen in the groups in which lentinan was administered. Similarly, life span was increased in the lentinan-treated groups. Side effects possibly associated with lentinan were the same as had been seen in the Phase I and II studies; all were transitory and not serious. Incidences of positive PPD skin tests and of increases in PBL counts were higher in the lentinan-treated groups. It was concluded from this study that lentinan in combination with MF or FT should be effective for the treatment of pts with advanced or recurrent gastric or colorectal cancer. (15 Refs) Institutional address: Dept. of Oncologic Surgery Res. Inst. for Microbial Diseases Osaka Univ. Osaka Japan
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